Foreign section Translator's shelter ()

Translator's shelter ()

: " ". : 1) "" ( ) . 2) . 3) . .

- 62, : 1 2 3 4 All

: Using my limited skills of translator, I prepared the English version of the chapter "Workers of decomposition": http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2decomps.htm

fanboyphilosopher: It's very good! You're a great translator!

fanboyphilosopher: One small point of interest though: the Burglar ant (Pachycephalomyrma destructor) already has a translation in the English Bestiary, where it is called the Housebreaker ant. To maintain consistency, I recommend sticking with one of the two names (I personally like Burglar ant) and renaming it in the index. Also, it still seems like the small picture of the "Wedgehead" in the species Index instead uses the picture of the "Stream elephant shrew".

: Thank you for these notes! Fixed now.

bhut2: - ( ): Nurse spider (Nutrix Curarachne) Order: Spiders (Aranei) Family: Weaver Spider (Araneidae) Habitat: tropical forests of the Far East (Asia Mainland and nearby islands). Among the insects, there are many social species, and some taxa are represented exclusively by social species. In contrast to insects, spiders relatively uncommonly form colonies. But when an independent transition to a social way of life occurs among spiders, a considerable variety of colony establishments is found. Social spiders appeared during the Neocene era on different con-tinents, and populated predominantly the tropical belt. In the tropical forests of the Far East one of the original social spiders, nurse spider, is found. It is a representative of araneidae species, and forms a colony, numbering up to 500 individuals, most of whom are young and small males. This species has pronounced sexual dimorphism. The female nurse spider reaches length of 15 mm (leg span about 30 mm); it has a big round belly. The coloration of an adult female is dark brown, with white leg tips and pedipalps. A males length is approximately 5 mm (10 mm leg span); it has a very catchy coloration: the upper part of the abdomen is bright red with a few white spots along the midline; the rest of the body is white, with translucent legs. These males have very strong venom and in case of danger they emerge on the web and even sit astride the females, defending them from possible enemies. The bite of sev-eral males is enough to kill a small bird. Young individuals remain greenish-white in colour for a long time. The web of this species is a large structure, with a diameter of up to 3 meters. Usually it is stretched among the branches and consists of several relatively correctly built circular nets from which individual solid web strands stretch to the neighbouring branches. Insects, caught in the nets attract the attention of young and sexually mature females, who attack it, bite it and partially drain it. Then the old females crawl onto the web, receiving a much larger proportion of the nu-trients from prey. Males and juveniles are also present on the net, but keep out of the way, in shelters. Hunting females rarely gorge themselves - usually they leave the prey, as it barely begins to feel the effect of the digestive enzymes. The stated females creep into shelters and use the movements of the legs on the net to send a special signal signifying "feeding" in response to which the juveniles and males climb on its body. The female belches out a nutritious liquid, and youngsters and males feed on it. Also, the old females spread distribute nutrients among young females, which are busy caring for the young. In this species, despite the sharply pronounced sexual dimorphism, the female is loyal to the male and does not eat it after mating. Sometimes during the mating, the female is fed "broth", which is burped out by a "nanny", and this reduces its aggressiveness. One clutch contains up to 200 small hatchlings, many of which survive to independence. At the age of about 6 months they become sexually mature. Life expectancy is about 2-3 years.

: Translated descriptions made by Bhut and FanboyPhilosopher are added to the site now! Great thanks to everybody!

fanboyphilosopher: Jacana wagtail (Dromotacilla nupharodroma) Order: Passerines (Passeriformes) Family: Wagtails (Motacillidae) Habitat: freshwater reservoirs of Europe (to Three-Rivers-Land at the east), wintering in Africa in Sahara Nile basin. The wagtail family was given the opportunity to actively evolve when vast treeless spaces appeared on the Earth. Most species of these birds live in relatively dry areas, but some species have mastered other habitats - coastal bodies of water. These species had already existed in the human epoch, but in the Neocene the specialization of wagtails to an aquatic life has become even more pronounce. On the island of New Azora lives one of such species-the stream wagtail (Motacinclus nocazorae), capable of diving and running short distances underwater. In Europe lives other, less specialized wetland species-long toed wagtails (Dromotacilla). These are small wagtails with a long thin beak and very long toes, with the ability to walk on floating leaves of aquatic plants like water lilies and pondweed, like Jacanas. Wagtails in the human epoch were sufficiently preadapted to such a life: low weight and a semiaquatic lifestyle will direct their evolution in this direction. Long-toed wagtails are distinguished by their long toes: the length of each toe exceeds the length of the tarsus. Also their toes are equipped with long slender claws. Due to this adaptation, these birds easily move across floating leaves. In addition, long-toed wagtails are able to search for food with their head submerged, and if necessary, dive in case of danger. Overall, the appearance of these birds remains identifiable as that of a wagtail - a large head, long legs, and a long swaying tail. These birds have retained the ability to fly, and the primary flight feathers have become thick and rigid, allowing them to paddle their wings underwater. Due to the melanin content, further reinforcing the feathers, the flight feathers of all species of long-toed wagtails are black or brown. Sexual dimorphism in the coloration is not pronounced. The Jacana wagtail is a typical species of the genus, inhabiting rivers, bays, and lakes with slow currents, heavily overgrown with water plants. The body length of adult birds is about 10 cm, the tail is up to 8 cm. The head and back are dark green, above the eyes are yellow eyebrows of thin feathers. The beak is almost as long as its head and slightly curved downwards. The nostrils can be closed, allowing the bird to search for food underwater on the underside of floating leaves of plants. The primary feathers are black, secondaries are bright yellow with black tips. The stomach is grayish-white; on the front of the neck is a black crescent. The tail is black. The skin on its feet is greenish-gray. This species feeds on aquatic invertebrates: insects and their larvae, small crustaceans, and worms. In contrast to the present Jacana, which broods developed chicks, the Jacana wagtail is altricial. It therefore is comfortable with a safe, durable socket on dry land usually under the roots of large trees, washed out by water, or in low hollows of trees standing near the water, as well as the rotted out insides of tree trunks with soft wood. The clutch has up to 5 eggs, exclusively incubated by the female, who is fed by the male. Both birds raise the chicks jointly; during the summer each bird couple makes two broods. This species is migratory and departs for winter in North Africa, the Sahara Nile Basin. In heavily overgrown stagnant waters of southeast Europe north of the Alps mountain ridge, the Balkans, and along the southern coast of Fourseas a close species lives: the duckweed-running wagtail (Dromotacilla lemnodroma). This bird is characterized by its smaller size the length of an adult bird is about 6-7 cm, and the tail is equal in length. Due to its small length it is able to walk on the thickets of duckweed and other small floating plants. The color of plumage at these birds has a bright green color with black flight feathers and a poorly defined scaly pattern on the back and head: at contour feathers in these areas the edge is slightly darker. This is a heat-loving species and winters on the Indian subcontinent, pursuing wintering grounds along the course of long rivers. The idea of the existence of this species was proposed by Simon, the forum member

: And here is a new translation - chapter "Giants of Siberia", in English now: http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2gisiber.htm It had taken only about 4 days of my vacations to translate it...

: And the next chapter: http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2lrdwtld.htm "Lords of wetlands" - the wildlife of Western Siberian wetlands.

bhut2: - : Widest Disparocarcinus (Disparocarcinus latissimus) OrderSquad: Decapods (Decapoda) Family: Majids (Majidae) Habitat: the Pacific Ocean, the ocean floor at depths of up to 3 km. Among the effects of the planktonic catastrophe" at the dawn of the Holocene and the Neo-cene was the almost complete extinction of the deep-sea fauna, which depended upon the productive upper layers of water. So, in early Neocene, an active settlement of deep-water layers of the oceans by the descendants of coastal and shallow-water animals had begun. New, often bizarre survival strategies appeared among the settlers. One of them is shown by a species of deep-water crab the widest Disparocarcinus, which lives at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. This is a slow ground dweller, found exclusively at great depths and possessing a distinctive appearance. The species epithet of this animal reflects the shape of its body: the carapace of the animal is flat and wide, with an oval shape, and a length of up to 20 cm. It stretches into a powerful thorn that is used to defend the crab, and on the front of the body, it has several pairs of spines. The surface of the carapace is covered with short bristles. The eyes of this animal are missing completely, not even eye pedicels remain. The walking legs are of a moderate length, and they have a different form: they are flat. A wide carapace and the flattened legs of this animal impede it getting stuck in the sea floor - this crab dwells in a very silty terrain. In addition, all of its walk-ing legs have "brushes" of elastic chitin hairs flanking, with a fine velvet, the leg tips. It also prevents the immersion of the animal into silt. The body colour is grayish-white; the claws, legs and spines along the edge of the carapace are slightly darker due to the thicker and chitinezed cuticle. The claws are short and thin, covered with numerous bristles on the edge: the widest Disparocarcinus eats exclusively silt, raking it with its claws and digesting the organic material contained in it. These traits are characteristic only for the females of this species. The relations between the sexes of this crab are similar to those that have been among the representatives of several families of deep-sea anglerfish from the human era. The male of that species has absolutely no resemblance to the female: it is very small (no longer than 10-12 mm), and is reminiscent of the decapod crustaceans only in its younger age, hence the generic name, meaning the "Gypsy crab". The gender of this species is not genetically fixed and is defined by ontogeny of each individual. If the larva during a certain time leads an independent life, it grows and turns into a free-living female. If it lands on a female's body, the larva molts several times and becomes a parasitic dwarf male. The male lives under the abdomen of a female; it pierce the surface of the females body and eats by the females account. With each molt, the male loses the typical traits of a decapod crustacean: the body becomes bag-like, there is only a rudimentary segmentation, the limbs and senses degenerate, only the gonads remain well developed. As such, the male can easily be mistaken for a representative of a species of a parasitic crustacean. During their joint lives, the male and female crabs of this species can synchronize the biological rhythms: together they molt and are involved in reproduction. Sometimes the female may have 2-3 parasitic males at once. This species feeds on silt, its claws rake the mud and the crab swallows the top lay-er. Together with mud, this crab eats small animals that are unable to escape it. During its molt, a female with a soft shell sits motionless for some time on its discarded skin like on "rescue raft", thereby avoiding dipping into viscous silt. Over the next 2 weeks, where its new armour hardens at last, it eats the remnants of its old shell and continues a normal life. The clutch of this species has up to 300 eggs. The first larval stages pass in the egg, the eggs hatch in-to bentos-dwelling megalopa larva, which feeds on bacteria by eating the top layer of silt. It becomes an adult female in 3-4 years. To become a parasitic male takes considerably less time: in this case, the sexual occurs in the second year of life. Life expectancy is 40 years in this species.

bhut2: : Nosferatu Worm (Serpentobdella gigantissima) Order: Trunkless leeches (Arhynchobdellida) Family: Jawed leeches (Gnathobdellidae) Habitat: Meganesia, Lake Carpentaria. In the northern part of the Neocene Meganezia is a warm and humid Equatorial climate. This contributes to the emergence, in the mainland fauna, of large species of invertebrates that use these rich sources of food provided by nature. The Carpentaria Lake is one of two major lakes in the North Meganezia. There are a variety of large fish (even freshwater green shark (Carcharhinus viridis)), as well as èjngana (Eingana archonta) a giant semiaquatic snake, the supreme predator in the lake. The abundance of large animals with thick skin gave rise to the evolution of a kind of parasite a bloodsucker able to bite through their skin. This creature is the Nosferatu worm, a large leech from coastal areas of the Lake. The Nosferatu Worm is related to large species of leeches, but this species is far away from the terrestrial Giants, which are found in the forests of Southeast Asia. The body length of the leech alone is up to 20 cm, but it can stretch up to half a meter. The body flattened, ribbon-like, with strong suction cups at the front and rear ends. The coloration of the upper side of is light grey with dark spots along the midline of the body. The underside is painted in a bluish-white color. Along the front edge of the head three pairs of eyes are positioned, each one - the size of a grain of black pepper. The eyesight of a Nosferatu worm is good the leech is able to no-tice even small prey. The mouth is located in the circle of three sharp triangular jaws. Using these jaws, the leech easily bites through the thick and solid skin of snakes and sharks. Thanks to its strong oral sucker, the leech clings to the animal host. To get rid of it, an èjngana will climb ashore or form body rings and rub them against each other. The Nosferatu worm more rarely attacks the sharks, but it is more difficult for them to get rid of this parasite. The at-tacked shark rubs on floating tree trunks or on the skin of the other sharks. A hungry leech drinks up to 200 ml of blood per feeding, and the wound, made by its jaws, bleeds for a long time. The prey of the Nosferatu Worm is not limited to large animals. In the absence of large animals nearby, the Nosferatu worm attacks ducks and other water birds. This attack of the leech usually ends with the death of the birds: the Nosferatu worm encircles the bird and deprives it of the ability to move, and by feeding, the leech produces a severely haemorrhaging effect. Occasionally the Nosferatu worm hunts for ducklings and frogs, swallowing them whole. Sometimes the prey of this leech are turtle hatch-lings; after digesting prey, the leech just throws up their shells. The Nosferatu worm propagates in rivers, because the eggs of this species cannot grow in water of the lake, which has a small residual salinity. This species is hermaphroditic. This animal lays mucous cocoons containing up to 50-80 large eggs on leaves of aquatic plants. A cocoon is able to endure being out of water for several days. When the mucus dries up, a crust protects the developing fetus from destruction. The incubation lasts up to 3 months. A young leech with a length of approximately 20 mm feeds on the blood of small fish and often attacks their gills. With age, it goes on larger prey. The sexual maturity comes at the age of 3 years; the life expectancy is up to 15 years.

: The chapter "King of the castle" based upon ideas by Timothy Morris is translated now: http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2kingcas.htm

:

bhut2: - : Great Urma (Urma magna) Squad: Rodents (Rodentia) Family: Squirrel (Sciuridae) Habitat: Northern Europe, coniferous forests. The dominant group among the Neocene mammals are the rodents. After the end of the Neocene they quickly regained their numbers and variety, characteristic for the Holocene era. In the course of evolution, among them appeared species, which mastered new ecological niches and food sources. One of these rodents is the great urma, a large representative of the family of squirrels that inhabits the conifer forests of the North Europe. This animals name comes from the ancient name of squirrels in northern Russia. The great urma has kept the recognizable appearance of its ancestor: actually, this is a very large squirrel. An adult reaches 8 kg in weight, in body length up to 50 cm, not counting the tail. The length of the fluffy tail is approximately 1 m. It is a slow-moving arboreal animal, its manner of movement is as in case of some prosimians the great urma very rarely commits to long distance jumping, preferring to travel along the branches by stepping slowly. When moving, it does not cling to bark and twigs with claws, but grasps with its fingers. The fingers of this squirrels front limbs are divided into two groups: (I) + (II) are capable of being partially opposable to fingers III + IV + V. This allows this squirrel to grasp twigs and cling to them. Its hind legs also grasp, the thumb there opposes the rest. The background color of the summer fur of the great urma is brown, the hair on the chest and the lower jaw is white, on forehead and nape is black. The last third of the tail is also white. The winter furs color changes from brown to ashy-grey, but the white and black markings are preserved. The large size and slowness of the great urma is related to the particularities of its diet: this rodent is an analogue of the koalas in boreal forests, because it feeds on available and hard to digest food - pine needles and young shoots. This rodent has a wide and a robust muzzle, with large jaw muscles and strong jaws, so that is can easily bite off the needles and young shoots, and chew them with the molars that have enamel folds, which continue to grow throughout the great urmas life, as do the incisors, but slower. The stomach of the great urma is relatively large with twin chambers this helps the food to undergo preliminary processing. This animal has long intestines with a well-developed blind gut. The urma spends a lot of time sitting on thick branches, dangling its tail down and digesting food. For this species, the coprophagy is typical the dung in the cecum gets recycled and maximum nutrients are extracted from it. The final litter the great urma is dry with a strong resinous smell. Due to the specific diet, this animals meat also has a pronounced resinous smell. Additional food sources are birds ' eggs, chicks and small rodents, as well as insect larvae that live in rotting wood. These squirrels often descend to the ground in search of invertebrates. On the ground, the great urmas keep their tails raised upwards, but with lowered tip. In case of danger, the great urmas raise their tails up and make a squawking sound, similar to crying. In the event of an attack by a large predator, the great urma does not flee, and proceeds to actively defend itself, causing deep wounds with its incisors. The white and black spots on the face of animal constitute a warning color. Usually, the great urma lives in families that has two adults and their offspring, and defense from the entire family can cause even a large predator to flee. The couple, in this species, remains for several years. The nest of this species is a large globular structure, which is arranged on the top of a large tree with a broken tip. The diameter of the nest can reach two m. A couple of great urmas uses the nest for several years, regularly changing the lining and renewing it at the time of the birth of offspring. Once a year, in late spring, the female gives birth to 3-4 blind and helpless pups, covered with velvety red hair. With the growth of the wool and vanishes by the fall in young animals appear patches of white and Black wool characteristic of adults. The young animals spend the first winter with their parents and the youngsters leave in early spring, when the male begins to show aggression towards them. Sexual maturity occurs in the second year of life, and the life expectancy of about 10 years. Beyond the Urals, the great urma is replaced by a close relative the giant urma (Urma gigas), adapted to life in the context of continental climate with harsh winters. It is a large ground squirrel (the adult weights about 12 kg), which inhabits the northern border of coniferous forests and mountain ranges in Siberia, preferring the pine stlanik. Obviously, the extensive arrays of larch forests become an obstacle to the colonization of this hardy species westward, into Beringia and North America, depriving it of the necessary winter fodder. This species feeds on pine needles and builds large domed nests on the ground. During winter, the fur of the giant urma is thick and white without black spots. The summer fur is grey with white spots on the chest and with black cheeks. These animals also actively protect themselves from predators by issuing ear-piercing squeals and holding their short tail vertically. The brood of this species consists of 2-3 large pups that grow quickly and spend the first winter in the family nest.

: Maybe, "great" or "greater" urma?

bhut2: Okay, great.

: New chapter of the project is translated: "Fishes, frogs and penguins" - about the fauna of New Zealand of Neocene epoch. http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2fshfrpg.htm

: And one more chapter is translated: http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2decflow.htm "Deceitful flowers" - about relationships between plants, animals and fungi in rainforest canopy of Southeastern Asia.

: The next chapter translated: http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2worlend.htm "Life at the world's end" - about the inhabitants of Antarctic meadows.

fanboyphilosopher: Wabun (Crocorax wabun) Order: Pelicaniforms (Pelicaniformes) Family: Cormorants (Phalacrocoracidae) Habitat: freshwater reservoirs of North America in areas of subtropical climate. The border of two eras, the Holocene and Neocene, was marked by a mass extinction, related to very harsh climate change. Extensive glaciation in the Northern Hemisphere forced inhabitants of the temperate latitudes to move further south, together with changes to the boundaries of climate zones. Later, when the glaciers retreated again, many species returned to their ancestral lands, yet some simply adapted to the changing conditions in new habitats. Thus in low latitudes appeared representatives of groups of animals and plants, more typical of polar regions. The Wabun is one of such species. The Wabun is one descendant of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) of the Holocene epoch. Even in the era of man this bird had a considerable capacity to adapt and was represented by various subspecies; in the Neocene from this species came a few new species, differing in ecology. One species is the Wabun, inhabiting the rivers and lakes of North America. The Wabun is a waterbird about half a meter long. Its coloring, like the ancestral species, is dark (males are darker than females), but not monotonous, and with distinct longitudinal striation on the neck and chest. This helps the bird hide in coastal thickets. The characteristic feather ears of the ancestral species evolved into two narrow feather braids; facial skin is bare, flesh-red colored. The wings are small, but the bird retains the ability to fly; the Wabun cannot fly for a long time, but for short distances it can fly fast enough to escape from underwater or terrestrial predators. If necessary, the bird can jump out of the water into the air, despite its wet feathers. From aerial enemies the Wabun escapes under the water: it is as good a diver as its ancestor. On the ground, this bird keeps very cautious: due to long fingers with palmas the Wabun walks very clumsily, although it is able to take off from the ground. The Wabun has relatively few enemies, mostly carnivorous fish and snakes; the meat of this bird is quite unpleasant in taste, so most predatory birds and beasts do not hunt it, but ravage its nest in search of eggs and chicks. The Wabun itself preys on small near-surface fish, insects and other invertebrates, as well as amphibians. The bird attacks bottom-dwelling fish and crayfish less, preferring to hunt in open water. Wabuns are gregarious birds, forming small loose colonies. Each pair arranges a nest alone, but rather closely spaced, and while hunting they do not show aggression towards neighbors. In addition, they are protected from enemies collectively, raising a general alarm and supporting each other with loud shouts. This is a sedentary bird species, dwelling where there are large bodies of water (especially rivers) which do not usually freeze in the winter, or freeze incompletely for a brief time. In the winter, these birds search in wintering holes for fish, plunging as deep as 20 meters. Nesting starts in the spring. Yet even in late winter males of this species begin to care for females, hunting together and feeding the female fish. A caretaker male performs underwater somersaults and frequently darts into the air, in a candle pose, and then falls into the water. During these courtship games, females evaluate the condition of the males before returning their affection. This species is monogamous, and partners often remain together for life. The nests of Wabuns are a little similar in arrangement to the nests of the great crested grebe in the human era. A pair of these birds throw into thickets of water plants heaps of twigs, until they form a floating island, at which a nest is arranged. Their clutch is no larger than 6 eggs, they are incubated in shifts by both parents. Usually young birds spend the winter with their parents, but in the spring the family breaks up, and the breeding pair refurbishes the nest and makes a new clutch. Sexual maturity comes at the 2nd year of life. The life expectancy of the Wabun is 10-15 years. This species of bird was discovered by Bhut, the forum member