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Translator's shelter (продолжение)
Семён: То бишь "Приют Переводчика". Тема для обсуждения переводов: 1) Проекта "Неоцен" на иностранные (от английского и немецкого до монгольского и квэньи) языки. 2) Иностранных проектов и книг соответственно на русский. 3) Обогащение лексикона сочными испанскими ругательствами и проч. Всех Михаилов Лозинских и Даниэлей Штайнов от биологии ласкаво просимо.
fanboyphilosopher: species of arachnid, not spider. How did I miss that.
fanboyphilosopher: Flabellitherium, fan beast (Flabellitherium semisolaris) Order: Insectivores (Insectivora) Family: Tenrecs (Tenrecidae) Habitat: Madagascar, savannas of the western part of the island. In the era of man tenrecs were among the typical fauna of mammals of Madagascar. This mammal group demonstrated a significant species diversity and differences in lifestyle. Among tenrecs existed arboreal, digging, aquatic and terrestrial forms. In the age of man there was a significant reduction in the number of these animals, and a number of species became extinct during the Ice Age at the boundary of the Holocene and Neocene. But the survivor species continued evolving, and among them appeared new and unusual forms, sometimes reaching large sizes. The species diversity of small and medium-sized tenrecs also increased, and among them appeared forms with unusual anatomical and behavioral characteristics. One of these species is the whimsical flabellitherium, the "fan beast", living in savannas in the west of the island. The flabellitherium is a descendant of the common tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus), a widespread and easily adaptable species of this family. The evolution of this species went in the direction of strengthening of passive protection, and eventually on the plains of Madagascar appeared a tenrec similar to a porcupine. The flabellitherium is a chunky and sluggish beast; the adult weighs about 8 pounds and its physique resembles a small badger. If necessary, he can run fast for short distances, but cannot run for a long time. In fact, it prefers not to run away from enemies, and uses other methods of self-defense. The back of the flabellitherium is covered with durable movable needles up to 20 cm, which provide it main protection from enemies. Needles also grow on the animal's head and neck, as well as a strip along the midline of the back to the base of the very short tail. At the base of the needles grow sparse and rigid elongated wool, visually enhancing the outline of the animal. Some needle are thickened and hollow - they play the role of rattles, further warning predators of intent of the beast to protect itself. The colouring of sides and belly of the flabellitherium is grayish-brown; on the back colors are more contrasting: a white background, on which are scattered black spots and smears of various shapes. Needles and wool between the needles are gray-white. This is warning coloring, reinforcing its threatening demonstration. When frightened the flabellitherium raises upright its needles that stick out in different directions and makes the outline of the beast look like a fan. At the same time the flabellitherium stays sideways to the predator, so the black-and-white color of his back is clearly visible to the aggressor. Until the predator keeps its distance, the flabellitherium loudly hisses and squeals, occasionally slightly trembling. At this point the needles knock against each other, and a loud cracking sound is heard. If the predator attacks, the beast unfolds his needles and tries to prick. During a fight flabellitheriums bite strongly. This animal has an elongated snout and a movable prominent proboscis nose. Its weak long jaws are armed with pointed teeth. Outwardly resembling a porcupine, the flabellitherium’s diet differs from it: this is a carnivorous species, feeding on insects, small vertebrates and carrion. On occasion, he willingly ravages bird nests. Seasonality in reproduction at flabellitheriums is not expressed. This species does not form permanent pairs and each animal usually occupies a certain territory, banishing her relatives. A male finds a female ready to pair by smell and encroaching on her territory. It shows itself to the female, pacing in front of her on outstretched legs, slightly trembling and chattering its needles. At the same time it opens its needle fan and blocks the way of the female. If she tries to leave, the male rattles its needles stronger and runs at her head, trying to stop her. If the female remains in place, the male gradually calms down and lowers its needles, thus showing no aggression. After mating the pair diverges. The female can mate, even caring for cubs of its previous litter. Pregnancy lasts up to 60 days; during the year the female can make 2-3 litters of cubs, and then rest for about six months. The female gives birth to 1 - 10 cubs in a hole that she digs herself or takes someone else’s. At birth, the cubs are hairless and blind, but within a few days after birth, they are covered with hair, and at the age of 2 weeks their eyes open and begin to grow needles. At the age of 6-7 weeks cubs can already leave the hole and walk through the territory with their mother, learning to search of food. Three-month young animals already leave their mother and live independently. At the age of 1 year, the animals reach sexual maturity. Life expectancy is 10 years.
fanboyphilosopher: I am nearing completion of the translation of 'Pirates of the Caribbean Sea', but I am wondering what method to use for posting it here. Qip.ru is not letting me register to post documents, and the translation is much too complex to split up between posts. Any suggestions?
fanboyphilosopher: It seems that your email has eluded my eyes for quite some time. I will likely use it.
Автор: If you want, you may load your translation to any file service and send me a link here. I'll check your translation and will make a new page then.
fanboyphilosopher: I have no experience with file services at all, so I will prefer to simply use your email. Mine is firstname.lastname@example.org, so look for a file from that within a month. Running skimmer (Dolichogerris cursor) Order: Bugs (Hemiptera) Family: Water striders (Gerridae) Habitat: Antarctica, stony areas with sparse grass near glacier edges. Adaptive radiation of terrestrial water striders led to the emergence of various kinds of predatory bugs inhabiting a variety of habitats and using different tactics in search of prey. On the surface of rocks warmed up by the summer sun hunts one of the representatives of terrestrial water striders – the running skimmer. This species is a small insect – the body length of an adult is about 12 mm. Its body is elongated, cylindrical, with a spherical head and big bulging eyes. Its front pair of grasping legs at rest are folded under its body. The second and third pairs of legs are of equal length and identical design. They are only slightly longer than the body. All individuals have wings. The main body color is gray or brownish, the color dominant in a given area of rocks. The upper side of the body is red, but it is noticeable only during flight or the threatening demonstrations of the insect. Waiting for prey, this bug lies on the surface of a stone, having sprawled to the sides its middle pair of legs. At the same time the rear pair is bent under the body and is prepared to pounce. Sensitive hairs on the legs allow the insect to feel the slightest tremor on the surface of the stone produced by insects running on it. When suitable prey is close, bug catches up with it, moving by a "gallop" and keeping its front pair of legs ready. Having overtaken its prey, the predator inflicts a poisonous stab by its proboscis and drains it. When attacked by a bird the insect opens its wings and shows its elevated upward red-colored abdomen. A running skimmer has a durable proboscis capable of piercing the skin of birds, and strong poison, causing a short-lived, but very painful sensation. Within a year, this species provides only one generation. Hibernating larvae of a young age are begin to feed intensively after the snow melts. Due to their constitution, they are able to withstand even freezing in ice and continue normal development after several years of captivity in the ice.
Автор: fanboyphilosopher пишет: so look for a file from that within a month Ok, and thank you for new translations!
Автор: fanboyphilosopher пишет: larvae of a young age Is it better to use the term "nymph" for youngs of hemimetabolous insects?
fanboyphilosopher: good idea.
fanboyphilosopher: Aoskiar (Megacyon aoskiar) Order: Carnivores (Carnivora) Family: Canids (Canidae) Habitat: deciduous forests and woodlands of North America. By the beginning of the Neocene representatives of North American canids were represented for the most part by descendants of the common coyote (Canis latrans) of the Holocene, predators of medium and large sizes. The only exception is the Waheela, a descendant of the arctic fox, and various descendants of the grey fox (Urocyon cineroargenteus), one of the most unusual canids of the Holocene. One of its descendants, the lynx fox (Megacyon feliformis), has changed relatively little and in many respects is similar to its ancestor, only changed by its larger size. But another descendant of the gray fox, the aoskiar, is markedly different in its appearance, as well as behavior. The aoskiar is quite a large beast: the height of an adult at the shoulder is about 90 cm, a body length of about five feet, and a tail length of about half a meter. The proportions of the animal resembles a beagle dog only the head, and especially the whiskers and ears, retains the features of a "portrait likeness" to the fox. Its eyes are greenish-yellow, its eyebrows bushy and blonde, at a sexually mature male on the neck grows a thick "beard". The hair color is usually gray, almost monochromatic, lighter on the belly. Northern populations of aoskiars differ in darker hair than southern ones; occasionally some of them are melanistic. In southern populations are occasionally found "blondes" with straw-yellow hair. The aoskiar is a terrestrial carnivorous mammal that eats very little plant food, unlike the related lynx fox. It has a weak jaw, not adapted for chewing, but is armed with teeth with sharp cutting edges. It is an active predator that can hunt for a variety of prey. Its diet consists of small and medium-sized rodents, lagomorphs, juvenile ungulates, terrestrial birds and their chicks, frogs, small non-venomous snakes and lizards, various insects and carrion. Thanks to the light addition of a good capacity for running this animal is capable of preying on the most swift animals, driving them to exhaustion. In this regard, the competitor of the aoskiar is the lupardus, but these two species rarely compete as the aoskiar is larger and preys on larger animals. In addition, the aoskiar prefers a "mosaic" landscape with thickets of shrubs and trees, while the lupardus inhabits plains, overgrown with grassy. Aoskiars themselves are often victims of Waheelas, Berls and other predators which ravage their dens. Aoskiars live alone or in pairs or small flocks (3 - 8 individuals) whose members are usually connected by family relationships. They hunt large prey, combining hunting from an ambush with a running hunt - one animal drives prey towards others, located in an ambush. Family life of aoskiars takes place in a den (usually a wide burrow or a hole under the roots of a tree), where adults raise pups (in brood of typically 2 - 4 puppies). Both parents attend the puppies, and sometimes helping them "nurse" are the grown up cubs of the previous litter or a subordinate female (usually the dominant sister). Aoskiars are usually monogamous, but sometimes one male has two or three females. In this case, offspring appear only at one dominant female. The struggle for the establishment of relations of domination occurs only if the females are unrelated. Courtship at aoskiars occurs in late winter, and the offspring are born a few months later at the beginning of summer. Aoskiars are cautious animals, when they meet with enemies they prefer not to fight, and hide in the forest or scrub. In an open confrontation they join only when there is a threat to their offspring, inflicting on the aggressor deep bites. The adaptation to rapid running largely affects the physiology of animals: due to frequent exposure to intense physical stress the life expectancy of an aoskiar is no more than 8 - 10 years. This species of mammals was discovered by Bhut, the forum member.
Автор: Thank you again!
fanboyphilosopher: Sun-shaped octopus (Soleoctopus platyssimus) Order: Octopuses (Octopoda) Family: True octopuses (Octopodidae) Habitat: tropical waters of Central America - Caribbean Sea, Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North and South America. The "Plankton catastrophe" on the boundary of the Holocene and Neocene dealt a severe blow to marine ecosystems. In the era of restoration of biological diversity squids made a number of successful attempts to master pelagic habitats, and their relatives, octopuses and cuttlefish, have continued to evolve in the coastal waters, and among them appeared a number of bizarre forms. One species of such mollusks is the sun-shaped octopus from tropical waters of the New World. This species is a flat crawling octopus dwelling in marine shallows. Its tentacles are nearly to the tips enclosed in a thick elastic membrane and have limited mobility. The tips of the tentacles, however, retain sufficient mobility, and with their help the mollusk can crawl along the seabed. Also in crawling participate well-developed suckers, which are located in double rows along each tentacle. The body of this mollusk is strongly flattened; its contours outline the semicircular fold of its mantle, which extends some distance behind its eyes. The eyes are movable, bulging, with a horizontally slit pupil; the iris is golden brown. Being adapted to a creeping lifestyle, the sun-shaped octopus has practically lost the ability of reactive movement. Only occasionally a scared octopus may emit a stream of water, rising from the seabed. It is able to swim in strokes using tentacles, recalling at this point a tailless stingray or a large flatworm. The coloring of the sun-shaped octopus is very variable: from almost white to green and cherry red. The animal has good vision, allowing it to easily simulate the color of the surrounding countryside. At rest, this species has a brown color with rows of white strokes, radiating from the body on the upper side of the tentacles. When agitated the coloring becomes sharper, and in the webbing between tentacles appear additional spots, merging with the main pattern. The sun-shaped octopus, despite leading a fairly sedentary lifestyle, differs by aggressive behavior. Inverted or washed out from the bottom by a jet of water, the octopus tries to cling to its enemy and bite it. Its poisonous bite is excellent protection: a shark with a slow metabolism feels weak for several days, and warm-blooded animals can die from the poison in a few minutes. The venom of this mollusk, however, is a hunting weapon: the animal eats benthic invertebrates with slow metabolisms. The crushing jaws of the octopus can cause strong bites and are able to stretch from its mouth on movable ligaments when the octopus examines the reef in search of burrowing animals - crustaceans, worms and mollusks. This species eats sea stars as well, including poisonous ones. As at all octopi, ink at the sun-shaped octopus is poisonous. But in the method of its application, this species differs from its relatives: releasing ink into the water, it does not leave its cloud, and hides, clinging to the bottom, its eyes closed and tightly locking its mantle cavity. At the same time, on the body of octopus a mucus layer is released that protects it from its own poison. If necessary the sun-shaped octopus can make up to three "shots" of ink. The passive way of life at this species is combined with a high capacity for regeneration: the animal can easily grow back all its tentacles, if deprived of them simultaneously. If this octopus damages its eye, it is easily restored within a few weeks if even a small part of it remains. This species grows rapidly and reaches sexual maturity at the age of two years. The male is smaller than the female, and it differs from her by elongated tentacles. In the process of "dating" the male gently draws its tentacles and strokes the female’s tentacles. Revealing himself, he floats above the circular female, and then sits down on top of her body and puts a spermatophore into her mantle cavity. The female lays up to 1000 small eggs and harbors them on the underside of the body, having pasted them between the suction cups. Usually she selects as a shelter a narrow crack in the reef and ventilates it with her undulating body and tentacles. Incubation lasts about a month. Juveniles immediately leave their mother who does not eat after hatching offspring and dies within a month.
fanboyphilosopher: Baobab opuntia (Adansopuntia obesa) Order: Caryophyllales (Caryophyllales) Family: Cacti (Cactaceae) Habitat: savannas and semideserts of northern Africa. In the age of man in the Mediterranean region were introduced cacti of the prickly pear genus (Opuntia). After the disappearance of man they survived climate change and became widespread in arid regions of the Old World, giving rise to various life forms. The largest of the descendants of prickly pears in the Old World is the baobab opuntia. It is a large tree, with appearance, size and shape similar to a baobab, but upon closer inspection it turns out to be a cactus. This species preserves and enhances the characteristic-to-cacti ability to store water in its trunk, so that it can withstand prolonged drought and grow in an environment where other woody plants die. The trunk has a diameter of 20 m, but the height of the tree is small - also about 20 m. The wood of this species is friable, with plenty of water storing parenchyma, and an outer layer strengthened with a network of fibers. The lower part of the trunk is unbranched, the first major branches begin at a height of about 10 meters. Perennial branches are rounded in cross-section, their growth until the age of three years is similar to the typical flattened stems of prickly pears. Young branches are thorny; spines up to 5 cm, with jagged edges, are gathered in groups of 4 - 7 pieces. The trunks of young plants are also spiny, but the spines disappear with age. The bark of the trunk of the adult plant is smooth, without needles, but very dense and thick - up to half a meter at the base of the trunk. Thus the plants are protected from the rare desert herbivores who want to get primarily to the succulent wood. Damage to the bark this plant tolerates very easily, quickly restoring the lost parts of the bark. Also, the thick layer of bark serves as protection against overheating. The baobab opuntia’s flowers are very large - about the size of a dinner plate, bright red, with many petals. They appear on biennial shoots; buds are formed in autumn and winter. The tree in bloom is an unforgettable spectacle. Pollination is generated by insects and birds, which it tempts with watery nectar. The fruits are the size of a grapefruit, with red-purple flesh, sweet and juicy. They feed monkeys, who are among the main seed distributers. In dry areas the fruits feed harelopes and poultry. Seedlings successfully develop only in rare rainy years, when they have time to store enough water to survive the dry season. Usually the first two years of the plant’s life are critical for survival. The first time a baobab oputia blooms is at the age of about 15 years, having reached 4 meters in height. Life expectancy of more than 1000 years. The idea about existence of this species of plants was proposed by Anton, the forum member.
fanboyphilosopher: Spring-coiled fungus (Carnoelatera sphinga) Order: Flesh-eating fungi (Carnomycetes) Family: Sponge carnivorous fungi (Carnomycospongidae) Habitat: forests of central Europe. In the human era were known carnivorous fungi eating microscopic invertebrates. In the Neocene among sac fungi appeared new promising group – flesh-eating fungi, predatory macromycetes. Their trapping bodies (pseudosporocarps, false fruiting bodies) have different shapes depending on their methods of catching prey - usually small invertebrates. Unlike plants, the body of the fungus is represented by false tissue - scleriota representing a plexus of hyphae. Due to a lack of vessels these fungi are inaccessible to the types of traps that are used by plants, so to apprehend prey they develop other types of traps. One group of these fungi form pseudosporocarps in the form of spirals which are able to curl during the swelling of cells, forming hyphae. This species is the spring-coiled fungus, living among mosses and lichens on trees in the forests of Central Europe. This fungus looks very peculiar: from moss thickets hang downward thin spiraling pseudosporocarps of white color up to 20 - 30 cm. In a group there are up to 40 - 50 pseudosporocarps forming a "beard", which occupies a length of about 20 cm long on the branch. Young and weak individuals of the fungus form groups of 4 - 5 pseudosporocarps. The surface of the pseudosporocarps oozes drops of a sweetish sticky liquid that attracts small insect into the coils. When an insect is among the coils of a spiral, the pseudosporocarp responds by mechanical and chemical stimulation: At stimulation the site increases the turgor of its cells, and the spiral tightly curls without letting the victim out. One pseudosporocarp can hold up to 3 small insects. They prey is rapidly dissolved, and then the pseudosporocarp is destroyed- it turns into a long slimy thread and dies. The fruiting body of the spring-coiled fungus is an apothecia of white color with strongly dissected edges, about 2 cm in diameter. It rises above the thicket of moss on a long stalk and sways in the wind, attracting flies that carry the spores of this species.
fanboyphilosopher: the translation of "Pirates of the Caribbean Sea" has been finished and sent to email@example.com.
Автор: Ok, I saved it. I'll check it soon and wil prepare the new chapter file. Thank you for work!
fanboyphilosopher: Giant lake rabbit (Barocuniculus capybaroides) Order: Lagomorphs (Lagomorpha) Family: Hares (Leporidae) Habitat: marshlands around Lake of Carpentary. Evolution has given to marsupial mammals one serious limitation: due to their nature of reproduction they are almost completely unable to master an aquatic lifestyle. Therefore, in the territory of Meganesia in the Neocene epoch aquatic mammals belong to two other groups. A variety of platypi feeding on small aquatic animals and rabbits, having become herbivorous animals. The giant lake rabbit is one of aquatic species of rabbits inhabiting the coastal zone of Lake Carpentaria, preferring wetlands with dry islands and extensive thickets of marsh vegetation. This species of rabbit in the process of evolution has acquired a significant convergent similarity with the South American caviomorph rodent the capybara. This is a large herbivorous creature with broad paws and sparse rough wool. It has almost lost the ability to jump: on land this animal moves by outstretched legs, and only in the water it can push off with both feet at once. Feet of the animal have elongated fingers, which are connected by a thick swimming membrane. The height of the adult at the shoulders is up to 40 cm, the weight is about 10 kg. In spite of the adaptation to an aquatic lifestyle, this animal is able to run fast over short distances, but prefers to hide from enemies in the water. The coloring of its wool is gray with a white belly and a white spot on the neck and shoulders, which prevents a predator to recognize the true contours of the body. The area around the nose, the end of the lower jaw and the cheeks are white. The rear part of the body is darker than the front, and under the tail is a vast area of white wool. In case of alarm the animal lifts its tail and shows this spot. At the giant lake rabbit is a large head with long whiskers and powerful incisors. The ears are very short, with a valve inside that protects the ear canal from water. The nostrils can also be closed. The eyes are large, shifted to the top of the head. This animal swims well; while underwater, it paddles all its legs alternately, while swimming near the surface of the water. If it needs to dive, this animal paddles its hind legs at the same time, holding its front legs to its stomach. The basis of the diet are aquatic plants. Also this animal eats coastal vegetation and tree seedlings in boggy areas of forests. With the claws of its forepaws the rabbit digs up roots and tubers at the bottom of the lake and eats them on the surface of the water. In case of danger the animal dives and can stay underwater for up to 5 minutes at a depth of 5-6 meters. It is a social species of animal, which settles in small groups of 2-5 breeding pairs on dry islands in the marshes. Each pair of adult animals digs under tree roots a burrow, to the water leads a well-trodden path among the vegetation. The depth of the hole can reach 5 meters. The pair of adults bear cubs 2 to 5 times a year. The cubs stay with their parents up to 3 months, and then leave the parent group. They lead an independent life in small groups which settle on the banks of rivers and swamps. Typically, these groups give rise to new settlements. Sexual maturity comes at the age of 4 months. The life span of adult animals rarely exceeds 7 years. Enemies of this species are large reptiles (for example, the giant snake the eingana (Eingana archonta)) and birds of prey. The idea about the existence of this species of mammal was proposed by Tim Morris, Adelaide, Australia.
fanboyphilosopher: Sabre-toothed shrew (Smilosorex venator) Order: Insectivores (Insectivora) Family: Shrews (Soricidae) Habitat: forests of temperate and subtropical areas of Eastern Asia, Far East. The mass extinction at the boundary of the Holocene and Neocene freed many ecological niches. In the early Neocene within nature began a peculiar experiment: the descendants of the surviving species started making attempts to develop new forms of life. In the deciduous forests of East Asia inhabits one of the relicts of the early neocaenic radiation of insectivores – the sabre-toothed shrew, a descendant of the common shrew (Sorex araneus). This species has become somewhat larger than most shrews, known in the human epoch: the body length is 12 - 15 cm, the tail is 6.5 - 8 cm, and the skull is 30.5 - 34 mm. At this species is expressed sexual dimorphism: the female is smaller than the male. Its ears are relatively small, the eyes are small. The muzzle ends in a mobile proboscis, swollen at the base and enclosing a large olfactory chamber - the sense of smell at this species is very well developed and is the main sense used when searching for prey. The build is dense, stocky; the tail length is about half the length of the body. Hair on the tail is very sparse. Like its ancestors, this is a carnivorous species. Noteworthy is the specialization of its teeth: the incisors and canines have diminished and became closer to each other, and the first molars in the upper jaw have become larger than the others and stick out of the mouth. They erupt much later than the other teeth during the transition of the animal to adulthood. The base of the tooth is reinforced by bone, while the skull is shortened compared to other shrews and its front part is reduced. Molar teeth, following the sabres and seated opposite of them in the lower jaw, are enlarged and have a cutting edge with a thick layer of enamel. The jaws can open up very widely, and the bite force is large enough to be able to bite through the cervical vertebrae of an animal the size of a rabbit. Wool of animals of this species is brown, the belly and throat are lighter. The sabre-toothed shrew is a solitary territorial species; when meeting outside of the breeding season, these shrews growl, showing their teeth and trying to exaggerate their size, pacing in front of an opponent on outstretched legs and raising up hair on its back. This species feeds on relatively large prey: large invertebrates, mice, voles and rat cubs. In the hunt for rodents, the animals are helped by their long teeth, with them the sabre-toothed shrew also can pierce the shells of beetles. Perhaps the sabre tooth developed it as a weapon for hunting armored invertebrates. On occasion, this shrew attacks terrestrial birds, far exceeding its size, and often emerges victorious. Killed birds suffice her for a few days, until the meat is spoiled so much that she could not eat it. The sabre-toothed shrew also does not disdain carrion, and sometimes eats the remains of someone else's prey. The relatively large size of this shrew reduces its appetite, but because of its intense metabolism it eats per day as much food as it weighs. The breeding season lasts from May to September, the females have time to raise 2 offspring. Males at this time are intolerant to each other and between them is fighting in which the teeth are never used - the opponents fight and scratch each other with their feet. Pregnancy lasts for 3 weeks; in the litter is up to 5 cubs. Cubs remain in a shelter for 15 - 20 days, and then for the same amount they walk with their mother. Brood follows the female in single file, holding on by their teeth to the base of the tail of that which is ahead, the first holding the tail of the mother. At the age of 50 days, females are already able to reproduce. Life expectancy - about 2.5 years. This species of mammals was discovered by Nick, the forum member
Автор: Good news for English-speaking readers: the new chapter is translated and added to the project thank to efforts of FanboyPhilosopher: http://sivatherium.narod.ru/2pircarb.htm "Prates of Caribbean Sea" - the chapter telling about the kingdom of live-bearing fishes of the Caribbean Sea and their diversity.
bhut2: Для разнообразия - перевод грокка из Бестиария (the translation of grokk from Bestiary): Grokk (Quasiursus grokk) Order: Carnivorans (Carnivora) Family: Mustelidae (Mustelidae) Origin: Western, Central and Southern Europe, Atlas Mountains, Asia Minor, the Caucasus peninsula. The first millions of years of the early Neocene world resembled a little the early Palaeocene, as small animals quickly increased in size to occupy the vacant niches in emerging ecosystems. The ecological niche of bears on the Holarctic territory was taken over by the large descendants of ferrets (Mustela putoris) that form a single genus – the berl (Quasiursus). Only in the Far East they are replaced by two more predators: the arktomeles (Arctomeles tardus) and the giant tanuka (Tanuka gigantea), natives of Eastern zoogeographical area. South of the Alps, Western Europe and North Africa is inhabited by another representative of the berl genus – the grokk. It evolved in relative isolation from the rest of the species and is slightly different from them. This is a predator and a scavenger, an ecological equivalent of the Holocene bear, but more carnivorous: plant food consists not more than 10% of the diet. The grokk is reminiscent in appearance of a cross between a ferret and a badger, but is an animal the size of a large bear, with the height in the shoulders of about 1 meter. It has an elongated body, a pretty short strong paws, large head and short tail. The fur of the grokk is of a sand-yellow hue with darker legs and a "mask" on the muzzle. The tail is also dark, but with a white tip. The grokk is a sluggish animal with plantigrade feet, but over short distances, it can run at a very high speed, catching up with its prey. This animal’s claws are long, and non-retractable. This mammal is a carnivore, it has a strong jaw, and the root teeth have a well-developed cutting edge; the canines are elongated. Grokk’s sense of smell is very acute – the nasal cavity is quite extensive due to the animal's head being shaped more like a cat’s than a bear’s. The eyesight is comparatively weak, the eyes are small. Hearing is sharp – the external ears are dexterous and are located at the top of the head. The grokk is a solitary predator, specializing in attack on major herbivores - the tapiroids and embolohyraxes. This species has tremendous strength, and the adult animal is capable of toppling a young embolohyrax on the ground and breaking its neck. Also, this mammal willingly eats carrion, which it finds by smell. Using its superior strength, this species easily seizes prey from other predators. In the Atlas Mountains, this mammal attacks young ostriches-giraffes. Due to this specialization in nutrition the population of the predator is widely dispersed. Each female occupies approximately 100 square kilometres of territory and lives in it practically for all of its life. In contrast, the males travel much more: they roam vast territories, partly overlapping those of different females. The territory of each of the male contains territories of several females. During the mating season the male indulges in long wanderings, fertilizing females that live in their territories. Each individual marks its territory by using secretions of musk glands, inherited from mustelid ancestors, and communication of different specimens occurs mainly through aromatic marks that these animals leave on the noticeable elements of the landscape - large stones, single trees. The grokk is a quiet animal. Using sounds in communication occurs mostly between females and their offspring, and when two adult grooks roar loudly, trying to oust a rival from their territory. The voice of the grokk in peace is a short snarl, hence the onomatopoeic name of the animal. The mating season begins in the fall. When ready to mate, the female produces a distinctive odor, which attracts males. After the end of estrus the female chases away the male. 2-3 Cubs are born in spring, within the first few weeks of life intense competition arises between them, there are often fights. Only one cub of the litter usually reaches independence. The sexual maturity comes at the age of 3 years; the life expectancy is up to 50 years
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