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артропод: Возможно ли, что улитки когда-нибуть полностью порвут с водной стихией и станут полностью сухопутными как рептилий.

Ответов - 97, стр: 1 2 3 4 5 All

Автор: Точнее тогда - гипергалинные. Рай для артемии, но ад для всего прочего.

Антон: Что ж, значит, не будет рапан в Четвероморье...

bhut2: Говоря о прудовиках, то вот переводы (на будущее) прудовика-камышееда и ядовитой катушки... Poisonous orb snail (Paraplanorbis virosus) Order: Basommatophora Family: Planorbidae Habitat: fresh waters of Europe. Pulmonary molluscs are widespread in fresh waters of the world. The epoch of anthropogenic pressure passed completely unnoticeably for many kinds of these animals – the ability to live in polluted waters made it possible for many species to keep a sufficient number of specimens in a wide area. After the end of the era of man, in several tens of thousands of years all pollutants be-came completely decomposed or they got to be buried under the deposits. The freshwater bodies became clean and the snails continued their normal existence. The majority of these kinds of aquatic snails developed no new features in comparison with their ancestors: the medium of their habitats and their way of life proved to be sufficiently conservative, and the stabilizing selection kept the aquatic snails as completely recognizable even after the millions years after the disappearance of man. But nevertheless, among them appeared species do not have analogs in the epoch of man. In the fresh waters of Europe a dwells sufficiently large type of orb snails. The diameter of its flat-spiral shell reaches 35- 40 mm. The coloration of this snail is quite distinct against the background of the surrounding water plants and is very garish - broad black bands on light yellow background along the turns of shell. The body of mollusc is black. An animal that will decide to attack this snail can suffer seriously. This species is com-pletely justified in being named a poisonous orb snail – a strong poison is accumulated into the body of this mollusc, and its coloration serves as warning for the predators. The poisonous orb snail independently produces only a part of its poison. This mollusc obtains a large part of its poisonous substances from its food: the poisonous orb snail feeds on the poisonous water plants of the Alismataceae family, and also on the poison-ous marshy plants of the Apiaceae family. The alkaloids from the plants are accumu-lated in a special gland, which opens into the mantle cavity of mollusc. After sensing an approach of carnivorous worms (leeches, planarians) or insect larvae, the poisonous orb-snails releases into the water a portion of its accumulated poison and then it hides into the shell, tightly adhering to the substratum. Spreading through water, the poison frightens away the snail’s enemies. This snail is also poisonous for the fishes - a part of the alkaloids is accumulated in the musculature, giving this snail a bitter taste. Like the majority of its related species, the poisonous orb-snail is a hermaphrodite. This species is not capable of the self-fertilization, and for successful reproduction a mating of two individuals is necessary. In the rare cases, in the rarefied populations of this species that are located on the edges of species habitat, separate individuals develop the ability of parthenogenesis: their unfertilized eggs double their number of chromosomes to the diploid while still in the oviduct of their parent, and further on, when laid, they begin to divide and develop into normal embryos. This snail glues flat slimy batches of eggs to plant leaves, making up to twenty batches of eggs during the season. The young snails have pale-coloured shells: they do not have a poison in the bodies, and they are vulnerable to the predators. The young snails accumulate a quantity of poison sufficient for the self-defence later on, and a large number of the young perishes from the aquatic predators. The sexual maturity of the young snails begins at the age of two months, and the lifespan reaches three-four years. Reed-eating pond snail (Galba calamivora) Order: Basommatophora Family: Lymnaeidae Habitat: Eurasia from the Three-Rivers area through Siberia to the rivers of the Far East The Neocene is the time of natural appearance of new, and often uncommon, species. But, alongside them, live many species of the living animals that almost are in no way remarkable. However, this circumstance does not understate the role that they play in the ecosystems of the epoch of Neocene. The high stems of reeds and mace reeds form extensive copses in the shoals of rivers and lakes of Eurasia. Here feed the large animals that possess the adaptations that make it possible to digest this rough and fibrous fodder. But alongside them dwells an entire world of the small creatures that are also adapted to be nourished by such sort of plants. The insects gnaw at the soft core of stems or drill through the rhizomes of the plants, controlling the spread of their populations. And on the edge of copses the stems of these plants lean down to the water, chewed at their very bases. These are the traces of feeding of another species of a herbivorous animal – the reed-eating pond snail, a representative of the pulmonary molluscs. This aquatic snail is one of the background species in the freshwater bodies. The appearance of the reed-eating pond snail has changed sufficiently little in comparison with its ancestors of the epoch of man. This is a descendant of the small pond snail (Galba truncatula), a common species on the territory of Eurasia. Because of their hardy lifestyles, the pond snails did not suffer from human activity. They successfully inhabited polluted bodies of water, gaining an advantage over the more sensitive species. The reed-eating pond snail is well adapted to feed on the tough, fibrous stems of aquatic plants. It feeds exclusively on the stems of the reeds and other coastal plants, without competing with the other gastropod molluscs that prefer algal overgrowths or the greens of softer plants. The length of the shell of this species is up to 40 mm. The shell of this species is short-ened and slightly thickened, with a blunted top, in form it is a transitional type to the flat-spiral shell of the shell-type of the orb snails, but currently with a definite top. In a transverse shear it appears to be rather oval in shape, excluding the increased last sector, where the lung of the mollusc is located. The surface of shell has design of brown spots against a yellowish background, and the soft body of the mollusc is yellowish-gray. On the head of this pond snail is a pair of the blunted conical feelers with two small eyes at their base. The reed-eating pond snail feeds constantly, stopping only to surface from under the water into air. The air amount in its lung lasts for approximately 45 minutes. This mol-lusc can digest the toughest parts of the reed stems - its digestive tract produces a fermenting substance, which helps to split the cellulose that contained in it. The guarantee of success of this mollusc is its strong “tongue”, at end of which are large horny teeth, which help it to scrape the rigid plant fibres. Each motion of “tongue” cuts off a layer of plant tissue together with the fibres. This species feeds underwater, nibbling the stems at their bases. Among the copses such a stem is simply immersed in the water due to its own gravity, keeping its vertical position, and the snail continues to eat it up from below, until only the top remains. At the edge of copses such stems frequently fall into the water and are carried away by the flow. This species is hermaphroditic like its ancestor. The reed-eating pond snail lays eggs from May to the middle of September. The break between the egg laying is for 3-4 days. The snail lays 10 to 15 eggs at the same time, enclosed in a mucous capsule. Small snails hatch after a week. They rapidly grow and they reach sexual maturity at the age of 1.5 months. The reed-eating pond snails live for about 2 years.

Автор: Bhut, большое спасибо! Обязательно использую эти переводы в работе. Сегодня, буквально пятнадцать минут назад, начал перевод описаний беспозвоночных. Если сможете сделать ещё переводы, буду безмерно благодарен. Пока я сделал черновые (машинные) переводы описаний насекомых, поэтому всё от паукообразных и ниже - полностью на ваше усмотрение. Эххххх, где-то сейчас наша Charles...

bhut2: Спасибо на добром слове, но боюсь, что у меня теперь будет несколько меньше свободного времени, в том числе и на переводы из Бестиария, т.ч. никаких гарантий дать не могу, к сожалению...

bhut2: Продолжая тему перевода (и впадая в полный оффтоп), вот переводы ещё не переведённых головоногих: “Crystal demon” (Ophthalmoctopus crystallinus) Order: Octopoda Family: Octopodidae Habitat: Sea of Okhotsk, the upper water layers to the depths of 200 - 300 meters. In the Neocene the Sea of Okhotsk became a semi-enclosed body of water. The volcanic activity in the region of the “Pacific Ocean’s ring of fire” led to the transformation of the Kurile Islands into Big Kuriles – a chain of large islands, separated only by narrow straits, through which the Sea of Okhotsk enters the Pacific Ocean. On the surface of the Sea of Okhotsk a unique bioceno-sis was formed by different brown algae, and it resembles the natural community of the Sargasso Sea from the age of man. The rafts of interwoven algae are living places for many small animals - fish, crustaceans, molluscs and worms. The abundance of small animals attracts predators to the floating algae. Some of them climb deeply into the depths of the rafts; others hunt on the edges of the accumulations of the algae, and the third catch animals, which accidentally end up in the water, far away from their shelters. Among the predators of algal fields of the Sea of Okhotsk are many species of octopi. One of their species turned to an untypical way of life - it barely descends to the substratum, and prefers to live the open waters on the edges of the algal accumulations. Its transparent body and carnivo-rous way of life has determined its name – the “crystal demon”. This animal is sufficiently com-mon in the algal fields, although it is difficult to discover it. The “crystal demon” is a swimming specie of octopi. This is a definite descendant of pelagic species that has settled itself in the fodder-rich living environment - in the outskirts of rafts of the brown algae. The body of this mollusc with a length of about 10 cm, flat and wide, resembling in shape a tree’s leaf. Almost all of the insides of the animal are semi-transparent, except for its eyes, carti-laginous “skull” and ink bag. However, these body parts of mollusc are disguised by the thin layer of tissues that contain guanine crystal. This gives them a silvery lustre that makes it possible to reflect the surrounding objects, making animal almost indistinguishable in water. The mantle adheres to the abdominal side of body along the central line, something that divided the mantle cavity into two “pockets” along the sides of body. Strong annular muscles have developed along the body’s sides. The funnel is reduced and serves only to pull water into the “pockets”. The “crystal demon” swims due to powerful contracts of the annular muscles of the “pockets” of the mantle cavity. Lack of the internal skeleton gives the invertebrate animals a problem: their bodies take their initial form only due to the elasticity of the tissues. For the “crystal demon”, “the pockets” of mantle cavity are supported in their straightened state by the incomplete rings of cartilage-like tissue that developed in their walls. This makes it possible to rapidly fill them with water before making the reactive push. The body of the “crystal demon” is semi-transparent and it is barely noticeable in sea water. The eyes of the animal are large, luminous and very mobile: they can be turned sideways, upwards and downwards. The head of the “crystal demon” is thickened, and the eyes are located at its edges. The tentacles of this mollusc are about 15 cm in length, but if necessary they can be stretched out to double that, when the mollusc attacks its prey that is hidden among the algae. The “crystal demon” possesses a surprising method to lure prey. This mollusc knows how to imi-tate a small swam of small swimming animals: it demonstrates “running” spots of small size - dark or silvery in color - against a transparent background. Some pigment cells in the external tissues of the mollusc accumulate guanine, and this helps animal to imitate silvery fishes. Depict-ing on its skin a simulacrum of a swarm of small animals, the octopus can easily swim up to an unsuspecting shrimp, which observes its “show”, as if hypnotized. In the same way this mollusc catches small fish as well. This specie of cephalopod molluscs is monocyclic: all of the adults die after breeding. The male “crystal demon” is considerably smaller than the female. It impregnates the female with the aid of the special tentacle – the gektocotyl. The female nurtures the brood of several tens of thou-sands transparent eggs on its tentacles for three months. At this time it leaves the algal fields and drifts in the water depth, where it has fewer predators. During the time when it nurtures the eggs, the body of the female is completely transparent, and a predator can discover it only by accident. The lifetime of this octopus reaches five years. Monkey octopus (Platytentaculum acrobaticus) Order: Octopoda Family: Octopodidae Habitat: Sea of Okhotsk, the field of the floating algae. Among the predators of the algal fields of the Sea of Okhotsk, the cephalopod molluscs occupy an important place. These inhabitants of the sea bottom have found far from the coasts a com-pletely suitable living environment in the form of interwoven brown algae, where it is easy to find shelter from the enemies and suitable prey in the form of many small animals, which live among the algae. The sole limitation for the cephalopod molluscs in regards to settling in the algal accumulations is connected to the body size: the coastal giants cannot live among the algae. However the small octopi, which populate the algal fields of Sea of Okhotsk, are very diverse. The absence of a hard skeleton makes possible for them to squeeze into the narrowest slots, and in the thick interlacements of algae they feel themselves as fish in the water, creeping among the algae with the aid of their tentacles. One of the small octopi, which populate the algal fields of Sea of Okhotsk is the monkey octo-pus, a mollusc with a length of body of about 6 cm. The body of the monkey octopus is flattened into an oblate shape. The tentacles are about 20 cm in length, wide and flattened, ribbon-like with rounded tips. Their suckers are located in two rows. In this octopus the suckers possess a significant mobility and they can make “steps”, similar to movements of the caterpillars. With the aid of the suckers’ movements, the monkey octopus can slowly creep up to its prey, without giving itself away by superfluous motions. When the monkey octopus does not hunt, it moves among the algae, grasping them by its tentacles as monkey does with its paws. The adult mollusc of this specie has lost the ability to swim - out of the algae the monkey octopus feels itself very insecure. After discovering itself to be in open water, this mollusc attempts to keep itself afloat, waving its tentacles. Simultaneously it stretches out its tentacles in the direction of the nearest strands of algae, attempting to find support. The funnel of this mollusc is not developed, and the mantle cavity is considerably smaller than of the octopi, which lead a mobile way of life and are capable of swimming. Skin respiration plays an essential role in the gas exchange of the monkey octopus. The body of this mollusc on the upper side and along the sides is covered with the sheet-like outgrowths, which simultaneously play the role of “additional gills” and provide camouflage. When resting, the octopus stretches them out, increasing the surface of its skin, but in case of danger they are strongly compressed and take the form of small protuberances on the mollusc’s skin. The body of the monkey octopus is coloured in brown with greenish specks and orange spots above the eyes and along the sides of body. The lower side of the tentacles is white. Depending on its emotional and physical state, this mollusc can be coloured from white to dark red, orange, green or brown with diverse switches between aforementioned colors and their combinations. The eyes of this mollusc large and mobile that can be raised above the body. Above each eye are several branching outgrowths of skin that disguise the eye. The sight of the monkey octopus has an important special feature - it notes the smallest motion in the non-moving environment. This helps the octopus to find prey among the algae, where visibility is very poor. Also the monkey octopus has a very sharp sense of smell. The bite of the monkey octopus is poisonous for the crustaceans and fishes – the mollusc predominantly feeds on them. This mollusc breeds once in its life. The male avoids direct encounters with the female - in this species cannibalism is very common, and the male (it smaller than the female) risks to become prey of the female. After discovering a female, the male approaches it from a safe distance and with the sharp reduction of muscles breaks of one of its tentacles – the gektocotyl, which is filled with sperm. This tentacle finds the female by itself via smell and it begins to crawl into the fe-male’s mantle cavity, where the fertilization of eggs takes place. After the department of the gek-tocotyl, the male remains alive. It grows a new gektocotyl, and it can impregnate one more fe-male. At this time the male does not eat, and it perishes after the loss of second gektocotyl. The clutch of this specie consists of 40-50 thousand small eggs, which the female nurtures on the front pair of tentacles. When nurturing the clutch, the female builds for itself a kind of a nest, bending the strands of the algae in the form of a sphere, in middle of which it hides, retaining “the walls” of its shelter via tentacles. The incubation lasts for three months, and all this time the female eats nothing. After the hatching of the young it quickly dies. The young monkey octopi know how to swim and spread out to great distances before they grow up and move to a settled way of life. The sexual maturity of this specie begins on the third year of life. Toady squid (Bufotheutis dioneomanus) Order: Theutida Family: Lophiotheutidae Habitat: Pacific Ocean, depth of 500 - 3000 meters. The family of lophiotheutid squids is widespread in the deep water area of the oceans of the world. These passive cephalopods are the ecological analogs of the anglerfish of Holocene, and in the process of evolution they acquired a distant similarity to these fish in the appearance. They practically lost all capability for the rapid reactive swimming and became passively drifting planktonic animals, capable of only swimming slowly with using the strokes of their wide trian-gular fins. Toady squid is distributed practically everywhere in the Pacific Ocean, encountered in the watery depths far away from the coasts and the underwater highlands. The length of the body of this mollusc is approximately 20 cm, without the tentacles. The passive way of life of toady squid has led to the striking changes in the appearance of this mollusc in comparison with its rapidly swimming ancestors from upper layers of the water. This specie has a short wide body, covered in flabby skin of a pale gray color, which can be both extended and gathered into folds. The ten-tacles of this animal are short and wide, with well developed suckers and large horny hooks at the ends. Their task is to contain the grasped prey. The suckers are reduced near the mouth, but the horny hooks are very large and are wide. This mollusc possesses good sight. It has large mobile eyes, which are located at the edges of its flattened head. This squid easily notices the lights of the deep water animals in the gloomy depths. The trapping hand of the toady squid is short and is wide. Its trapping part can double in length like the lead of Venus’-flycatcher’s plant (Dionea muscipula). Sharp horny hooks grow along the edges of this hand. The thin and flexible baiting hand can stretch out to the distance of one-and-a-half meters. When squid hunts, this hand “lures” the prey from a distance with the aid of the bait and grasps it with the “trap” of the trapping hand. The strong squeeze of trapping hand and the horny hooks that stab the prey kill it. The beak of this squid is wide, and mouth can open very wide as well. The poisonous glands are not developed, since the squid kills its prey with horny hooks. This specie is adapted to the hunt-ing large prey, whose mass can exceed its own size three times. Large animals are caught by the trapping hand behind the head. When the prey is dead, the squid grasps its head with tentacles and it begins, with the aid of the tentacle movements, “to stretch” onto its prey. Moving the tentacles, the predator crawls through the prey’s body from head to tail, being retained with the aid of the hooks. Its mouth becomes strongly extended, and the squid gradually swallows its prey, forcing it into a ring-like shape in its stomach. The lack of a solid skeleton greatly helps this mollusc in carrying-out this specific method of feeding. After filling its stomach, the animal acquires an almost globular form, and floats in the water depth, slightly moving its fins to maintain stability. The prey is digested al-most completely. This species of squid nurtures eggs on its own body. After the mating, the male remains alive - its energy is sufficient to fertilize several females. The female lays several hundred thousands of very small eggs, encased in a jelly-like shell in the form of a wide ribbon. It winds the clutch around the baiting hand and in the course of several months’ guards it, driving off enemies with the use of the trapping hand. The degeneration of the tissues of its body occurs at this time – the fat becomes completely used-up, the reduction of bowels and digestive glands takes place. To-ward the end of the incubation the female becomes slow-moving and sluggish, but it reacts to the approaching predators and makes threatening gestures with its trapping hand. After the hatching of the young, it dies. Young animals easily surface because of drops of fat in their livers. They feed in the upper layers of water on plankton crustaceans and fish fry. As they grow, the young toady squids migrate into the depths. The development of this specie occurs very rapidly: at the age of 4 months, the young animal already has a body shape typical for the adult individuals, and it has half of the body length of an adult mollusc. During their first year they reach the typical size of the adult indi-viduals, and in the second year of life they become sexually mature.

Юный биолог: Ща Семён с ружьём придёт(-:

Семён: Юный биолог пишет: Ща Семён с ружьём придёт(-: А вот не демонизируйте меня . Я только хочу, чтобы форум не потонул под тоннами весёлой болтовни в специализированных темах. Bhut пишет о моллюсках, поэтому я это оффтопом не считаю.

Юный биолог: А какие потомки у живородок?

Мех: Так что, у этой няшечки может быть будущее в имитации частей рифа и рыбьих скелетиков?

bhut2: Если она оставит потомков, которые доживут до Неоцена, то почему бы и нет?

Мех: А она точно оставит? %)

bhut2: А я откуда знаю?

Семён: Мех пишет: Так что, у этой няшечки может быть будущее в имитации частей рифа и рыбьих скелетиков? Части рифа - возможно, скелетики - точно нет. Ну и необязательно выводить улитку от мурекса.

Мех: А почему скелетики нет? Раньше одобрили

bhut2: Слишком сложно для улитки, наверное...

Юный биолог: А вы что, ламаркист?

Семён: Мех пишет: А почему скелетики нет? Раньше одобрили Не знаю, кто там одобрил, я и тогда не одобрял, и сейчас не одобряю. Просто аккуратные рыбьи скелетики встречаются только на человеческих тарелках после рыбного дня. В природе рыбы редко умирают своей смертью, а их скелеты моментально растаскиваются. Так что из-за редкости объекта для подражания такой улитки не появится точно. А если и появится, то защита будет никудышной из-за желающих пополнить рацион фосфором из рыбьих костей.

Юный биолог: Семён пишет: В природе рыбы редко умирают своей смертью А когда жара?

Amplion: Юный биолог пишет: А когда жара? Речь о морских рыбах: жара им не вредит. А пресноводные тем более под такую вещь подстраиваться не будут.

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